Special Report – Are Digital Tattoos the Mark of the Beast?

I so appreciate my subscribers because they send me all kinds of interesting things. Case in point, check out this video…

What caught my attention the most about this video was the biometric scan for identifying the customer (scanner reading your palm) and the constant references to the “Mark of the Beast.” That bible reference reminded me of another video that fascinated me. (Cited below) I thought the mentioning of “digital tattoos” was especially fascinating.

I had heard of the possibility of digital tattoos a while ago but did not think we were close to anything resembling the “mark of the beast” mentioned in the book of Revelations, that is, until I did some research and oh, boy! What I discovered made my jaw drop. So much so, I decided to go down the rabbit hole of online research and here we are – a special report. Read it or listen to the podcast version, both below. Enjoy.

PART 1: Digital Tattoos are the Future of Healthcare

When I was researching digital tattoos, one of the first few articles I found was from this website – MedicalFuturist.com. Their article, “Digital Tattoos Make Healthcare More Invisible” really opened my eyes to the possibility of the good that could happen from Digital Tattoos. After all, at their core, digital tattoos are tools manipulated for good or evil, depending on the intent behind them. Check out this quote…

With the development in 3D printing as well as circuit printing technologies, flexible electronics and materials, applying the so-called digital tattoos or electronic tattoos on the skin for some days or even weeks became possible. Some researchers use gold nanorods, others graphine or various polymers with rubber backing to apply the tattoo on the skin without causing irritation. Certain experts believe that these skin patches or tattoos are only the beginning, and in the future, other skin techniques such as henna, tanning, and makeup will also be tested.

These flexible, waterproof materials impervious to stretching and twisting coupled with tiny electrodes are able to record and transmit information about the wearer to smartphones or other connected devices. That’s why phantasies about digital tattoos unlocking tablets, opening doors or supporting border crossing took off. In 2014, Motorola Corporation launched the digital tattoo for identification of its Moto X handset. The digital tattoo sticker unlocks the smartphone without the need for any passwords or patterns.

As the tiny patches can measure electrophysiological parameters, they could allow healthcare experts to monitor and diagnose critical health conditions such as heart arrhythmia, heart activities of premature babies, sleep disorders and brain activities noninvasively. Moreover, by tracking vital signs 24 hours a day, without the need for a charger, it is especially suited for following patients with high risks of stroke, for example. The digital tattoo could send alerts to medical systems, it might call the ambulance and transmit pertinent data, too.

In the future, tiny multifaceted patches might as well track muscle movements around speech, when applied to the throat, potentially turning the tattoos into half of a wireless hands-free kit. Since you don’t actually have to speak out loud, it could pick up sub-vocal commands, too. Alternatively, the figurative or non-figurative, well-designed electronic tattoos can even track brain signals with enough accuracy to control a computer. However, that’s still the distant future.

Back in 2015, Nanoengineers at the University of California, San Diego, developed a temporary tattoo that both extracts and measures the level of glucose in the fluid in between skin cells. Here’s a news report giving further insight into that. (And that report was from 2015.)

MC 10, a company that develops silicon devices thinned to a fraction of the width of a human hair, uses stretchable metallic interconnects, and elastic rubberlike polymers to form complete powered systems that sense, measure, analyze, and communicate information. In 2016MC10 marketed its BioStampRC sensor, a waterproof, band-aid-like patch that sticks to the skin and monitors movement, muscle performance or heart activity. The tiny wearable even has a Bluetooth radio and a miniature battery.

That same year, researchers at Harvard and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology developed color-changing digital tattoos within a project entitled Dermal Abyss, a bunch of biosensitive inks changing colors parallel how changes in your body occur. The inks can measure the concentration of glucose, sodium, and pH in the skin’s interstitial fluid, which surrounds cells.  Listen to this audio from 2016 from Harvard University.

And in 2019, Science Times reported that digital tattoos could be made from silk and a substance called Graphene. Here’s a quote from that article.

 During the placement of electronic tattoos or E-tattoos, they are exposed constantly to different types of mechanical inputs such as bending, cutting, pressing and twisting. This may lead to malfunction as it could cause mechanical damage to your electronic tattoo.

“We developed our self-healing, biocompatible and multifunctional e-tattoo by incorporating graphene with silk fibroin/Ca2+ films,” said Yingying Zhang, Associate Professor in the Department of Chemistry and the Center for Nano and Micro Mechanics at Tsinghua University. “We show that custom-designed and highly flexible e-tattoos can be facilely prepared through screen printing or direct writing of a graphene/silk fibroin/Ca2+ suspension.”

The graphene flakes found on the tattoo are distributed in the matrix form a path that is electrically conductive and it is responsive to all sorts of environmental changes like temperature, variations, humidity and strain. This endows the tattoo with increased sensitivity to multi-stimuli.

What is great about this invention is that the tattoo can be healed immediately, in fact it has an efficiency rate of 100% even after fracturing for 0.3 seconds. The tattoo can be healed immediately by wetting it with a drop of water because the hydrogen on water and the coordination of the tattoo can help reform it and bond the fracture of the interface.

“Based on the superior capabilities of our e-tattoos, we believe that such skin-like devices hold great promise for manufacturing cost-effective artificial skins and wearable electronics,” notes Zhang.

Digital tattoos are able to collect data on our bodies, they are able to transmit that information and, in the event, that they are damaged, they can repair themselves. These are more than interesting developments to those in the financial sector where biometrics (of all sorts) have been implemented to secure financial transactions.

PART 2: Biometrics are the now and future of Commerce

If you watch spy movies or any number of action movies, no doubt you have seen Iris-Scanners. Basically, you look into a view finder, the computer scans your irises and validates your identity. Once your ID has been verified, you are allowed access. What you might not have seen however, is the use of vein verification technology. Barclays said it is the first bank globally to use vein recognition technology for significant account transactions and they have been doing so since 2014. Listen to this quote from The Telegraph.

Barclays is launching a vein scanner for customers as it steps up use of biometric recognition technology to combat banking fraud. The bank has teamed up with Japanese technology firm Hitachi to develop a biometric reader that scans a customer’s finger to access accounts, instead of using a password or PIN.

The biometric reader, which plugs into a customer’s computer at home, uses infrared lights to scan blood flow in a person’s finger. The user must then scan the same finger a second time to confirm a transaction. Each “vein profile” will be stored on a SIM card inside the device. Vein recognition technology is used by some banks in Japan and elsewhere at ATM machines, but Barclays said it is the first bank globally to use it for significant account transactions.

Barclays said it is the start of a ramp-up in its use of biometrics to provide safer verification systems that cut fraud risks from customers sharing or choosing obvious passwords, or forgetting PINs.

That was back in 2014, has vein technology gone away? If this was the pre-Coronavirus era, I would have said “hardly” because In 2019, a company called PanPacific International rolled out a new line of vending machines that will use biometric verification to deliver age restricted products. The SmartPan Pro Beverage Dispenser uses finger vein biometrics to confirm the age of registered customers, allowing for self-service with goods that previously needed to be stocked behind the counter; such as beer.

But in the post-Corona world, the company – FindBiometrics, said that there “are a growing number of examples of organizations moving away from contact-based biometric during the COVID-19 pandemic. Government authorities in India and Pakistan were restricting the use of fingerprint scans for attendance tracking already in February, and in early March the NYPD halted the use of fingerprint scanning for police accessing its headquarters. Meanwhile, a high-tech burger shop in Silicon Valley went so far as to implement face and temperature scanning for customers, signaling the utility of contactless biometrics at a time of social distancing.”

And this is where my speculation begins. Digital Tattoos can collect and transmit data wirelessly. Could it be that before long, people are required to get these tattoos for the sake of public health? It may sound far fetched but, already there are signs of that mindset.

PART 3: Biometrics are the future of Control

I would encourage everyone listening to read a Bloomberg Opinion piece called, “When Tracking the Virus Means Tracking Your Citizens” because it brings up a lot of points that are often overlooked in the mainstream media, during these interesting times.

Since the outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic, some democracies around the world have used technology to avoid having to impose draconian mass quarantines that were common earlier this year in China. That’s reassuring — and it’s also worrying, because the very strategies that can help fight a plague can also be abused once it’s over.

Consider Taiwan, where an “electronic fence” allows local police to make regular phone calls to everyone who is home under quarantine; if the citizen doesn’t answer or the phone is out of power, police come to the home within 15 minutes. In South Korea, the government constantly updates a website that tracks the movements of people who have been infected, and issues alerts to the mobile phones of people in the geographic vicinity of an infected citizen. The Israeli government gained access to an archive of phone data to map the movements of infected people, then alerted those who had been in contact with them to self-isolate.

Again, invoking these powers is reasonable during a pandemic. Once the outbreak is over, however, this kind of power can and probably will be abused. What’s to stop a corrupt (or merely unscrupulous) leader from using such technologies to learn or even publicize the location of political opponents or dissidents?

“This is a genuine emergency and that justifies a lot of things that would not normally be justified,” says Jay Stanley, a senior policy analyst at the ACLU. “But we have to make sure that these temporary powers do not become permanent in a way that hurts everybody else.”

When I read that article and looked more closely at the examples they cited, I shuddered to think of such draconian measures being enacted here in the United States. After 9/11, the FBI was given broad new powers to demand data from private businesses. A dozen years later, both the ACLU and the Justice Department’s inspector general found that the use of that extraordinary power had become routine and unchecked. And because we did not learn from our history, we are doomed to repeat steps towards 1984. Listen to what was reported on April 13, 2020 .

So many things ran through my mind when that bit of news caught my attention. I’ll name a few.

  • In a join statement between Apple and Google, they say, “Privacy, transparency and consent are of utmost importance in this effort,” both, pledging to “publish information about our work for others to analyze” and work with “interested stakeholders” to expand the app’s functionality. While both companies repeatedly insisted that the tech will be “opt-in” and respect users’ privacy and security, its eventual integration into the very operating systems that run the phones used by the vast majority of smartphone users is of GREAT concern. No matter how secure data is supposed to be, it can always be hacked. And if not hacked, such data may be too irresistible for both Google and Apple to leverage for marketing purposes later. But don’t take my word for that, head over to DuckDuckGo (my favorite search engine) and search “google privacy breach” and see what you get. And once you’re done with that, search “apple lawsuits privacy violations.”
  • Bluetooth technology is good but, it ain’t perfect! I imagine a lot of false positives with this app and just because your phone came within range of an infected person’s device, that doesn’t necessarily mean you got close enough to catch something. And even then, the success of the app is going to be contingent on how many people are using the opt-in app.
  • And what about when this pandemic passes? Since this contact tracing is in the operating system, that means its permanent and will likely be baked into future upgrades of the technology. How will it be leveraged then? When we get upgrades on our phones, we check a box consenting to the use of the new software. Do you ever read that? I’ll admit that I don’t and I would guess that you don’t either. I think I will going forward.  Tech companies have already been able to track you in order to sell you things, now they will be able to track you in real time and who you hang out with and who they hang out with and so on. What would happen if you had an opinion that was politically incorrect? Or, if due to some past behavior you were not permitted to travel? This may sound crazy, but a system like that is already in place in China and its called Social Credit Score. I did a video about it. Please check it out. I’ll provide a link in the description.

PART 4: What does it all mean?

Digital Tattoos are very advanced and can provide great benefit to our health. Since they can collect and transmit data, they are a logical replacement for the vein technology used by banks like Barclays. Digital Tattoos can be connected to apps on our phone which can offer up more options related to public health. However, despite the good these biometric advances represent, there is a long-term consequence to our privacy being overlooked.

The app being developed by Google and Apple, has the propensity to be a massive surveillance program.  And it is being hidden in plain sight.

The technological pieces for tracking individuals, tracking group interactions and enabling contact free commerce transactions is here today. The potential for massive population control, as described in the book of Revelations – “the mark of the beast” seems to be nearer than you might have suspected, prior to this podcast.

Of course, I could be wrong. I hope I’m wrong. Only time will tell, for sure.

FOR FURTHER STUDY

Fiserv launches ‘super ATM’ with biometric palm-vein reader
Hyosung Adds PalmSecure Biometrics to ATMs – Mobile ID World

MUSIC IN THIS PODCAST

Music in this podcast:Day After Day by Joakim Karud http://soundcloud.com/joakimkarud
Music provided by Music for Creators https://youtu.be/FvOaTPNUQ0Y

Chill Day by LAKEY INSPIRED https://soundcloud.com/lakeyinspired
Creative Commons — Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported — CC BY-SA 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/b…
Music provided by Music for Creators https://youtu.be/0WQBUiO1-SA

People by G I Z https://soundcloud.com/djgiz Creative Commons — Attribution 3.0 Unported— CC BY 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/b…
Music provided by Music for Creators https://youtu.be/-Uq3xthl-nw

Blue Boi by LAKEY INSPIRED https://soundcloud.com/lakeyinspired
Creative Commons — Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported — CC BY-SA 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/b…
Music provided by Music for Creators https://youtu.be/HsoKy3ecY7E

The Covid Conspiracy: What They Don’t Want You To See

In this episode, I dive into a very interesting article about Covid-19 and how certain information, from authoritative voices, are censored online. To quote from the article I discuss, “Informed consent isn’t possible when the opinions of renowned experts are being censored by those who control which voices we get to hear.” Truer words have not been spoken. Tune in and be amazed by what the mainstream media has kept from you concerning Covid-19.

Links related to this podcast:

2 + 2 = 5

Heroes do great things. They also perform small acts of resistance. Case in point, one teenage boy resisted his teacher’s attempt to turn him into a racist. Sounds weird, I know. Tune in to hear about one inspiring act of resistance against critical race theory in school. 

Resources related to this podcast can be found here:

Today is April 1, 1984. How many fingers do you see?
Racism Reimagined: How Critical Race Theory Imperils the American Workplace

PODCAST – This is Why Recruiters Don’t Give Feedback

I have a background in recruiting so from time to time, I get questions like this via LinkedIn, “Do you think companies should give more feedback to candidates after interviews?” The question was posed to me in an open forum. Before I responded, I noticed that the comments were from the perspective of the jobseeker.

Understandably, everyone who interviews for a job wants to know the “real deal” on why they were rejected. More often than not, job seekers receive a form letter that says (in so many words) thanks but no thanks, we hired someone else. As blunt as that response is, I think it’s the best course of action for the company. Why? Several reasons but this recent headline gives one prime example – “Facebook Told Black Applicant with PH.D She Needed to Show Culture Fit.” In this episode, I discuss that article and my reactions. 

Links related to this episode:

This is why companies do not give job applicants feedback… – Jim Stroud

Racism Reimagined: How Critical Race Theory Imperils the American Workplace

Do Black People Owe White People Reparations For Slavery?

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DISCLAIMER FOR THE EASILY TRIGGERED: Slavery is wrong. I make no apologies for it. None of the research presented herein is intended to lessen the injustice of African slavery in America or slavery in any incarnation. If you disagree with what I have researched and decide to call me a (insert your insult here) I will say now, that you’re rubber and I’m glue. What you say bounces off me and sticks to you. Such is my present-day retort and likely my future rebuttal, should I feel so inclined. If you’re still curious as to why I posted this disclaimer, read on.

So, today, someone shared with me this article from Fox News, “Evanston, Illinois first in US to pay reparations to Black residents” and here are some quotes from that article.

The City Council in Evanston, Ill., voted 8-1 late Monday to approve a plan to make reparations available to Black residents over past discrimination and the lingering effects of slavery.

The plan, which could be the first of its kind in the U.S., is to distribute $400,000 to eligible Black households. The Associated Press reported that qualifying households in the city of 73,000 would be eligible to receive $25,000 for home repairs or down payments on property.

Ald. Robin Rue Simmons, the lawmaker who proposed the initiative back in 2019, called the approval a first step but said more needs to be done.

“It is, alone, not enough,” she said, according to the Chicago Tribune. “We all know that the road to repair and justice in the Black community is going to be a generation of work. It’s going to be many programs and initiatives and more funding.”

Further down in the article it reads…

Qualifying residents must either have lived in or been a direct descendant of a Black person who lived in Evanston between 1919 to 1969 and who suffered discrimination in housing because of city ordinances, policies or practices.

The article reminded me of a conversation I had with a very dear friend of mine about race issues in America. (My friend happens to be white.) She asked me what percentage of black people would likely hold her personally responsible for slavery? I told her that I could not quantify a percentage but likely many African Americans would hold her personally responsible for the sins of her ancestors because of news reports like this.

Now, I’ve heard several arguments made for reparations on numerous occasions, but I tend to reject them. Why? For me, it always comes down to this – who should pay?

The topic of reparations for African Americans is a topic that has been discussed ad nauseum and typically for political advantage. Case in point, here’s a quote the Washington Times. The headline reads, “California moves to consider reparations for slavery.” The date of the article is August 29, 2020.

California lawmakers are setting up a task force to study and make recommendations for reparations to African Americans, particularly the descendants of slaves, as the nation struggles again with civil rights and unrest following the latest shooting of a Black man by police.

The state Senate supported creating the nine-member commission on a bipartisan 33-3 vote Saturday. The measure returns to the Assembly for a final vote before lawmakers adjourn for the year on Monday, though Assembly members overwhelmingly already approved an earlier version of the bill.

“Let’s be clear: Chattel slavery, both in California and across our nation, birthed a legacy of racial harm and inequity that continues to impact the conditions of Black life in California,” said Democratic Sen. Holly Mitchell of Los Angeles.

She cited disproportionate homelessness, unemployment, involvement in the criminal justice system, lower academic performance and higher health risks during the coronavirus pandemic.

Although California before the Civil War was officially a free state, Mitchell listed legal and judicial steps state officials took at the time to support slavery in Southern states while repressing Blacks.

The legislation would require the task force to conduct a detailed study of the impact of slavery in California and recommend to the Legislature by July 2023 the form of compensation that should be awarded, how it should be awarded, and who should be should be eligible for compensation.

The panel, which would start meeting no later than June 2021, could also recommend other forms of rehabilitation or redress.

A sober minded person might ask, what does slavery that happened centuries ago have to do with today’s homelessness, unemployment, health risks associated with the coronavirus and the other social issues mentioned in that quote? Outside of inciting the passions of would-be voters, what immediate benefit does it provide to the people of California?

When reparations are discussed it is typically proposed that the US government should be paying African Americans an undetermined amount of money for the suffering inflicted upon their ancestors by all the white people in America. If we look at this logically and without angry rhetoric, that argument doesn’t hold up to scrutiny. To illustrate that, let me share with you some inconvenient facts.

Inconvenient fact #1: Very few white people in America owned slaves.

  • According to data on White Slave Owners from a US Census Bureau 1860 Report, only 1.6 percent of whites in America owned slaves. I’ll quote that number again, 1.6. Between 1525 and 1866, in the entire history of the slave trade to the New World, according to the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database, 12.5 million Africans were shipped to the New World. 10.7 million survived the dreaded Middle Passage, disembarking in North America, the Caribbean and South America. And how many of these 10.7 million Africans were shipped directly to North America? Only about 388,000. In other words, 4% of slaves from Africa went to North America. The other 96% went to South America.

Inconvenient fact #2: Native Americans owned and traded in slaves!

  • According to the Oklahoma Historical Society website and Smithsonian Magazine, from the late 18th century on, Native Americans in the South, like whites, owned slaves. And, when the U.S. government “removed” the five nations to “Indian Territory” (now the state of Oklahoma) in the 1830s, they took their slaves with them, so that “[b]y the time the Civil War broke out more than eight thousand blacks were enslaved in Indian Territory.” Overall, enslaved people accounted for “14 percent of the population” of the Indian Territory, and it wasn’t until after the Civil War that emancipation arrived for some of the slaves. 

Inconvenient fact #3: African Americans owned slaves too

Should white people today be forced to pay reparations when only 1.6 percent of whites during the slavery era owned slaves? Should we demand payment from Native Americans and African Americans as well? Both groups owned African American slaves too. I could go on but, no, I’ll share a bit more.

Inconvenient fact #4: Whites Were Slaves in North Africa Before Blacks Were Slaves in America

I am quoting a 2004 article now from Ohio State News.”

A new study suggests that a million or more European Christians were enslaved by Muslims in North Africa between 1530 and 1780 – a far greater number than had ever been estimated before. In a new book, Robert Davis, professor of history at Ohio State University, developed a unique methodology to calculate the number of white Christians who were enslaved along Africa’s Barbary Coast, arriving at much higher slave population estimates than any previous studies had found.

Most other accounts of slavery along the Barbary coast didn’t try to estimate the number of slaves, or only looked at the number of slaves in particular cities, Davis said. Most previously estimated slave counts have thus tended to be in the thousands, or at most in the tens of thousands. Davis, by contrast, has calculated that between 1 million and 1.25 million European Christians were captured and forced to work in North Africa from the 16th to 18th centuries.

Davis’s new estimates appear in the book Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Palgrave Macmillan).

Now, should today’s white people demand reparations from today’s black people for the crime of enslaving their ancestors for two centuries? For some reason, lack of education mostly, so many people in America believe that America created the institution of slavery. I assure you America did not invent slavery. A cursory glance into a bible proves that. But, I digress, because I am veering off from something, I really want to say in 3 points.

  • Point #1… The Reparations Agreement between Israel and the Federal Republic of Germany was signed on September 10, 1952, and entered in force on March 27, 1953. According to the Agreement, West Germany was to pay Israel for the costs of “resettling so great a number of uprooted and destitute Jewish refugees” after the war, and to compensate individual Jews, via the Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany, for losses in Jewish livelihood and property resulting from Nazi persecution. | That was justice and the right thing to do.
  • Point #2… When Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, President FDR forced Japanese Americans to be relocated and incarcerated in concentration camps. There was no justification for this strategy and later, research proved it was motivated by fear and racism. In 1988, President Ronald Reagan signed into law the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 which apologized for the internment on behalf of the U.S. government and authorized a payment of $20,000 to each former internee who was still alive when the act was passed; a total cost of 1.6 billion dollars. | That was justice and the right thing to do.
  • Point #3… Reparations were paid to Jewish and Japanese survivors who were personally affected by the trauma. So, should African Americans be paid reparations? The African survivors of Slavery, who were personally traumatized centuries ago, should have been. But not the African Americans of today because who can truly know who owes what? Statistically speaking, very few whites enslaved black people, Native Americans enslaved black people, black people enslaved black people and blacks enslaved white people for two centuries. So, again, who pays?

No doubt, some of you reading this will have a problem with what I’ve shared. Perhaps, you are calling me names now. (No doubt. Its why I posted the disclaimer at the beginning.) If so, let me leave you with one final quote where a certain group is demanding social justice because of slavery. This quote is from BBC News.

The West is being asked to pay Africa $777 [trillion] within five years in reparation for enslaving Africans while colonising the continent. The African World Reparations and Repatriation Truth Commission, meeting in Accra for its first international conference, also called for all international debt owed by Africa to be “unconditionally cancelled”.

The Accra Declaration issued at the conference says that money will be demanded from ”all those nations of Western Europe and the Americas and institutions, who participated and benefited from the slave trade and colonialism”.

The conference, co-chaired by Dr Hamet Maulana and Mrs Debra Kofie, announced plans to set up an international team of lawyers from Africa and the diaspora to pursue all legal means to collect the money. The group will also be contacting the International Court of Justice, as well as the United Nations and the Organization of African Unity for assistance.

Mrs Kofie told the BBC the reparation figure was based on the number of human lives lost to Africa during the slave-trade, as well as an assessment of the worth of the gold, diamonds and other minerals taken from the continent during colonial rule.

She says Africa’s turn has come. “We are the only group that have not received reparations. The Jewish people have received reparations. The native Americans have received reparations. The Korean comfort women and so-on and so forth,” she said.

The declaration added that all those in the diaspora, who want to return and settle in Africa, should be allowed to do so and that those who enslaved and colonised Africa should provide seaworthy vessels and aircraft for such repatriation.

The date of that article from BBC News is August 20, 1999.

Thanks for reading this far. I know it was a rather long rant today. A shorter one tomorrow. (I think. It all depends on what I read.)

Jim Stroud

P.S. Did you know that reparations were actually paid to slaves after the Civil War? This was thanks to a measure initiated by Abraham Lincoln (R). However, after his assassination, his Vice President – Andrew Johnson (D) assumed power and reversed it. Click here to listen to my podcast where I discuss that bit of history. (Or, just listen to it below.)


The header image comes from the Face 2 Face Africa article, “The shocking history of enslavement of 1.5 million white Europeans in North Africa in the 16th century.” I HIGHLY recommend it.